Quantum Physics

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    Cockshaw, Evan


    Arguing for the Existence of God in the Age of Quantum Indeterminacy

    "In this project I will explore the question of how we might engage in apologetic discussion of arguments for the existence of God in this age of quantum indeterminacy and closed non-bounded universes. While these last two phrases may not be familiar they are implicit in many conversations between believer and non-believer regarding the existence of God."
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    Crouch, Catherine H.


    Quantum mechanics & the Creator: Physics points to a world in which relationships matter most

    "Suppose you had to choose between two worlds. In one, reliable physical laws are the same everywhere, ensuring that the universe is consistent and predictable. In the other world, while we can predict many things, the behavior of the most fundamental building blocks of reality is up for grabs. For example, atoms can seem to be in more than one place at the same time — and there's no way to find out where they really are...These two worlds are alternate descriptions of our universe. The first is the clockwork picture provided by classical physics — the foundations of Western science from the Renaissance to the beginning of the 20th century. The second description comes from the 80-year-old science of quantum mechanics. No less a scientist than Albert Einstein knew which he preferred. 'God does not play dice with the universe,' he famously said — rejecting QM's picture of an unsettling unpredictability at the heart of things. But Einstein was almost certainly wrong. In recent years, experiments have confirmed some of QM's most astonishing predictions. And the strange world of QM could actually be remarkably compatible with Christian beliefs."
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    Gordon, Bruce L.


    Why Quantum Theory Does Not Support Materialism

    "Materialism (or physicalism or naturalism) is the view that the sum and substance of everything that exists is exhausted by physical objects and processes and whatever supervenes causally upon them. The resources available to the materialist for providing an explanation of how the universe works are therefore restricted to material objects, causes, events and processes. Because quantum theory is thought to provide the bedrock for our scientific understanding of physical reality, it is to this theory that the materialist inevitably appeals in support of his worldview. But having fled to science in search of a safe haven for his doctrines, the materialist instead finds that quantum theory in fact dissolves and defeats his materialist understanding of the world."
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    Kallfelz, William


    Relativity, Quantum Theory, and Theology

    "The purpose of this presentation is to give a concise description of some of the unique and essential aspects of the theories of Relativity and Quantum physics which suggest, in the author’s opinion, compelling engagements with some issues in present-day philosophy and theology. The concepts presented are summarized in a ‘top-down’ fashion. Appendices are included giving the more technical details deriving such concepts ‘from the bottom-up,’ for the interested reader."
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    Lameter, Christoph


    Divine Action in the Context of Modern Scientific Thinking

    "...Quantum Causation is an important link to science that has been neglected by theologians due to the fear of proposing another God of the gaps. What is not seen is that these gaps are widely accepted as ontological even by scientists. Investigation of issues in Quantum Causation needs to be pushed forward and might result in a new way of integrating science and theology. It has the potentiality of overcoming the old enmity between both fields and lead to fruitful cooperation between those fields. Quantum Causation is also very useful as a tool for the building of a bridge from the popular faith in science to faith in God. It would allow us to overcome the two language or complementary language symptom that has been hampering theology for so long. It would overcome the otherworldliness by allowing the expressing of faith in terms of current ways of thinking available in science."
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    Lameter, Christoph


    Yes, God Can

    "An investigation of the discussion published in Zygon on divine action. The characterization of quantum mechanics as deterministic, the view of the nature of measurement and of Bohm’s interpretation of quantum theory is evaluated and compared with recognized authorities on quantum mechanics. A simple theory of divine action based on quantum collapse is proposed and found to be in harmony with the concepts of quantum mechanics. The observation is made that there is a tendency to avoid the consideration of the indeterministic nature in quantum mechanics, and to actually argue for a deterministic nature of quantum mechanics despite a consensus in physics that quantum mechanics is indeterministic."
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    Lameter, Christoph


    "Introduction" to Divine Action in the Framework of Scientific Thinking: From Quantum Theory to Divine Action

    "Divine action in the context of scientific knowledge is a proposal to establish a link between theology and science—not in the classic sense of a natural theology, which would be an argument for the existence or characteristics of God from nature—but as a theology of nature, 'a way in which the God in whom we believe on other grounds might be conceived to act in ways consistent with scientific theories.' The aim of this text is to justify belief in a God who can act in the world considering the scientific framework of quantum mechanics. Why quantum mechanics? It is the current theory used by scientists to describe the nature of the matter out of which our universe is composed. A theory of divine action compatible with contemporary physics is a fundamental requirement for a credible consideration of how God could act in the framework of our contemporary worldview."
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    Lameter, Christoph


    Cosmology in “On the Moral Nature of the Universe” by Murphy and Ellis.

    "Divine action is one of the key elements of a Christian theology and the integration of concepts of divine action with knowledge about the basics of how matter behaves -- such as quantum mechanics -- and with what we know about the history of the universe is of key importance to the credibility of religious experience and practice today. The concept of divine action inevitably shapes our theology of God. God will only be a caring and loving God if he can 'intervene', act in the world and make a difference."
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    Murphy, George L.


    Does the Trinity Play Dice?

    "The interpretation of quantum theory and its implications continue to be controversial. In this paper, we survey some issues raised in debates in order to pursue the belief that the God who is involved with the world in quantum phenomena is the Holy Trinity. Interpretations which emphasize participatory aspects of quantum theory are especially congenial to an understanding of divine action which centers on the Incarnation. In this light, we examine questions about reality, knowledge of the world, the role of chance, complementarity, material identity, and the entanglement of systems."
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    Roberts, Hilary E.


    Quantum Mechanics: Dead Cats And Things Like That

    "Why should anyone need to know anything about QM other than us befuddled physicists? Because it has become increasingly popular to use quantum theories of physics to flail away at the Christian's faith. Although this attack generally goes unnoticed outside the halls of intellectualism, it is as predictable as sin that in the near future such attacks will make inroads through the more popular media. Atheists such as Carl Sagan will be preaching to us about billions and billions of more reasons that enlightened people should know better than to trust in God. The problem this time is clearly in the Christian's favor who can say 'I know whom I have believed in'. We poor physicists are at a point in the theories where fundamental physical 'laws' appear to have vanished into the worm holes of uncertainty."
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    Sinclair, James Daniel


    The Metaphysics of Quantum Mechanics

    "Is the science of Quantum Mechanics the greatest threat to Christianity? Some years ago the journal Christianity Today suggested precisely that. It is true that QM is a daunting subject. This barrier is largely responsible for the fear. But when the veil is torn away, the study of QM builds a remarkably robust Christian apologetic. When pragmatic & logically invalid interpretations are removed, there remain four possibilities for the nature of reality (based on the work of philosopher Henry Stapp). Additional analysis shows two are exclusive to theism. The third can be formulated with or without God. The last is consistent only with atheism. By considering additional criteria, options that deny God can be shown to be false."
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    Smith, Albert E.


    Does God Play at Dice?

    "For most of us there is a tension between the naturalistic and the theistic view of the relations between things and events. For the naturalist the universe is a vast system or process, self-contained and self-consistent, with every thing and every event explicable (in principle) in terms of other things and other events belonging to the system. The theist holds to the idea of a God who is apart from the world and yet on whom the world depends for its existence and to whose will it is responsive. The tension, if I am correct, is part of the cultural heritage of Western man. It is particularly acute for those who subscribe to theism and practice crafts, like those of the scientist or historian, primarily concerned with the development of naturalistic explanations."
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    Wharton, William R.


    The Importance of Causality in Quantum Mechanics

    "Christian theology preferentially favors some philosophical interpretations of quantum mechanics. By using a case study of stationary states of atoms, this paper examines the various interpretations. The preferred interpretation is that all localized events in space-time are parts of chains of contiguous events traversing space-time at a rate limited by the speed of light. This is the process of becoming, i.e., the creation of reality. It is usually not deterministic, leaving room for many first causes that are the initiation of new causal chains."