Irreducible Complexity

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    Behe, Michael


    Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference

    "It was a shock to the people of the 19th century when they discovered, from observations science had made, that many features of the biological world could be ascribed to the elegant principle of natural selection. It is a shock to us in the twentieth century to discover, from observations science has made, that the fundamental mechanisms of life cannot be ascribed to natural selection, and therefore were designed. But we must deal with our shock as best we can and go on."
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    Dembski, William A.


    Irreducible Complexity Revisited

    "Michael Behe’s concept of irreducible complexity, and in particular his use of this concept to critique Darwinism, continues to come under heavy fire from the biological community. The problem with Behe, so Darwinists inform us, is that he has created a problem where there is no problem. Far from constituting an obstacle to the Darwinian mechanism of random variation and natural selection, irreducible complexity is thus supposed to be eminently explainable by this same mechanism. But is it really? It’s been eight years since Behe introduced irreducible complexity in Darwin’s Black Box...I want in this essay to revisit Behe’s concept of irreducible complexity and indicate why the problem he has raised is, if anything, still more vexing for Darwinism than when he first raised it. The first four sections of this essay review and extend material that I’ve treated e lsewhere. The last section contains some novel material."
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    Dembski, William A.


    Still Spinning Just Fine: A Response to Ken Miller

    "When I read Ken Miller's contribution to the volume I'm editing with Michael Ruse (Debating Design: From Darwin to DNA, Cambridge University Press, forthcoming 2004), I expected I'd have till the actual publication date next year to respond to it. But since Miller's contribution has now officially appeared on his website ( is titled 'The Flagellum Unspun: The Collapse of "Irreducible Complexity"'), I want to comment on it at this time. I'll go through Miller's paper sequentially and respond bullet-point fashion."
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    Miller, Kenneth R.


    The Flagellum Unspun: The Collapse of "Irreducible Complexity"

    "In the last several years, the intelligent design movement has attempted to move against science education standards in several American states, most famously in Kansas and Ohio (Holden 1999; Gura 2002). The principal claim made by adherents of this view is that they can detect the presence of 'intelligent design' in complex biological systems. As evidence, they cite a number of specific examples, including the vertebrate blood clotting cascade, the eukaryotic cilium, and most notably, the eubacterial flagellum (Behe 1996a, Behe 2002). Of all these examples, the flagellum has been presented so often as a counter-example to evolution that it might well be considered the 'poster child' of the modern anti-evolution movement."