Christianity & the Origin of Science

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    Ayatollahy, Hamidreza


    The Religious Context of Scientific Development

    In my paper, I am going to answer the following questions in detail with their necessary evidence: a. What are the six periods of development in science in the history of science? And what are their characteristics? b. What are the specifications of the cultures in which those developments occur? c. Why has the development of science happened in those cultures? And what are those contexts that prepared the possibility of each development? d. How can culture be influenced by every development in science? In this respect, there are some theories among Western and Islamic philosophers that I am going to introduce with my own belief that the role of Ibrahimian religions (as an important dimension of culture) are very important as providing the only context in which the development may be possible (although some dogmas were obstacles for some developments).
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    Bumbulis, Michael


    Christianity and the Birth of Science

    "In an attempt to account for the origin of modern science, I will argue that the Judeo-Christian world view played a crucial role in this birth. I will cite four lines of evidence to support this hypothesis and respond to objections at the appropriate places...Several points in the following essays are indebted to Stanley Jaki's, 'Science and Creation: From eternal cycles to an oscillating universe.'"
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    Clericuzio, Antonio


    The Mechanical Philosophy and the Design Argument

    "In the present paper, I set out to investigate a crucial episode in the history of the relationship of science and religion, namely the mechanical philosophers’ use of the design argument in seventeenth-century science...With the exception of Descartes, the argument of design played a prominent part in seventeenth-century mechanical philosophy: mechanical philosophers like Boyle preserved and reinforced with theories and observations the doctrine of God’s providential control of the universe."
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    Jaki, Stanley L.


    Science: From the Womb of Religion

    "Long before the 1960s progress became increasingly identified with an enterprise, science, looked upon in many quarters as incompatible with religion...If intellectual honesty, usually taken for a fruit of scientific method, is to be had only through Christian love, science and religion should not seem far removed from one another. In fact science is as closely related to religion, and especially to Christian religion, as a child is to the womb out of which it came forth and with full vitality."
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    Koons, Robert C.


    Science and Theism: Concord, not Conflict

    "It is widely held that the belief in supernatural entities, like God and the soul, is incompatible with a modern, scientific viewpoint...I will argue that, contrary to the popular view, the past success of science supports the truth of theism, and that the future success of science will depend on the perseverance of theistic conviction."
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    Menuge, Angus J. L.


    Interpreting the Book of Nature

    "The idea of nature as a book provides one of the richest and most often appropriated metaphors for the natural world. Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, and Christians have all seen the work of the scientist as tracing out the telos or logos inscribed in nature by some demiurge or god...Science began when nature appeared to be intelligible—something one might read like a book. Tracking the transformation and diversification of the nature as a text metaphor provides a useful means of understanding the successes and failures of science."
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    Pearcey, Nancy


    Christianity Is a Science-Starter, Not a Science-Stopper

    "Today the majority of historians of science agree with this positive assessment of the impact the Christian worldview had on the rise of science. Yet even highly educated people remain ignorant of this fact. Why is that? The answer is that history was founded as a modern discipline by Enlightenment figures such as Voltaire, Gibbon, and Hume who had a very specific agenda: They wanted to discredit Christianity while promoting rationalism. And they did it by painting the middle ages as the 'Dark Ages,' a time of ignorance and superstition.
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    Stark, Rodney


    Catholicism and Science

    "The rise of science was not an extension of classical learning. It was the natural outgrowth of Christian doctrine: Nature exists because it was created by God. In order to love and honor God, it is necessary to fully appreciate the wonders of his handiwork. Moreover, because God is perfect, his handiwork functions in accord with immutable principles. By the full use of our God-given powers of reason and observation it ought to be possible to discover these principles. These crucial religious ideas were why the rise of science occurred in Christian Europe, not somewhere else."
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    Stark, Rodney


    False Conflict: Christianity is Not Only Compatible With Science--It Created It

    "It was Einstein who counseled that 'Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind.' I do not claim that scientists must include God within their cosmologies, or that nonbelievers can’t do good science. But it is a fact that the origins of science lie in Christian theology. And it is clear that religion and science remain quite compatible today."
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    Stark, Rodney


    How Christianity (and Capitalism) Led to Science

    "A series of developments, in which reason won the day, gave unique shape to Western culture and institutions. And the most important of those victories occurred within Christianity. While the other world religions emphasized mystery and intuition, Christianity alone embraced reason and logic as the primary guides to religious truth."
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    Thaxton, Charles


    Christianity and the Scientific Enterprise

    "By the end of the 17th century Newton had synthesized the work of Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo by achieving a unity of heaven and earth, with the same substances in the heavens and earth, all equally subject to mathematical analysis... The modern scientific enterprise was now ready to explore by the senses combined with mathematics the structure and ongoing operation of the universe. Christian thought had done much to inspire this new form of inquiry."